Is life better after motor cortex stimulation for pain control? Results at long-term and their prediction by preoperative rTMS
Pain Physician
17: 53-62
André-Obadia, N.
Mertens, P.
Lelekov-Boissard, T.
Afif, A.
Magnin, M.
Garcia-Larrea, L.

BACKGROUND: A positive effect of motor cortex stimulation (MCS) (defined as subjective estimations of pain relief >/= 30%) has been reported in 55 - 64% of patients. Repetitive magnetic cortical stimulation (rTMS) is considered a predictor of MCS effect. These figures are, however, mostly based on subjective reports of pain intensity, and have not been confirmed in the long-term. 

OBJECTIVES: This study assessed long-term pain relief (2 - 9 years) after epidural motor cortex stimulation and its pre-operative prediction by rTMS, using both intensity and Quality of Life (QoL) scales. 

STUDY DESIGN: Analysis of the long-term evolution of pain patients treated by epidural motor cortex stimulation, and predictive value of preoperative response to rTMS. SETTING: University Neurological Hospital Pain Center. 

METHODS: Patients: Twenty patients suffering chronic pharmaco-resistant neuropathic pain. Intervention: All patients received first randomized sham vs. active 20Hz-rTMS, before being submitted to MCS surgery. Measurement: Postoperative pain relief was evaluated at 6 months and then up to 9 years post-MCS (average 6.1 +/- 2.6 y) using (i) pain numerical rating scores (NRS); (ii) a combined assessment (CPA) including NRS, drug intake, and subjective quality of life; and (iii) a short questionnaire (HowRu) exploring discomfort, distress, disability, and dependence. 

RESULTS: Pain scores were significantly reduced by active (but not sham) rTMS and by subsequent MCS. Ten out of 20 patients kept a long-term benefit from MCS, both on raw pain scores and on CPA. The CPA results were strictly comparable when obtained by the surgeon or by a third-party on telephonic survey (r = 0.9). CPA scores following rTMS and long-term MCS were significantly associated (Fisher P = 0.02), with 90% positive predictive value and 67% negative predictive value of preoperative rTMS over long-term MCS results. On the HowRu questionnaire, long-term MCS-related improvement concerned "discomfort" (physical pain) and "dependence" (autonomy for daily activities), whereas "disability" (work, home, and leisure activities) and "distress" (anxiety, stress, depression) did not significantly improve. 

LIMITATIONS: Limited cohort of patients with inhomogeneous pain etiology. Subjectivity of the reported items by the patient after a variable and long delay after surgery. Predictive evaluation based on a single rTMS session compared to chronic MCS. CONCLUSIONS: Half of the patients still retain a significant benefit after 2 - 9 years of continuous MCS, and this can be reasonably predicted by preoperative rTMS. Adding drug intake and QoL estimates to raw pain scores allows a more realistic assessment of long-term benefits and enhance the rTMS predictive value. The aims of this study and its design were approved by the local ethics committee (University Hospitals St Etienne and Lyon, France).